Saturday 13 August 2016

Comparing Challenges and Issues of Educational Leadership Past and Present

My name is Emily MacLean and I am an Education Technology Coach at an international school in Singapore. Working at a private school gives me a very different perspective on schooling and leadership compared to growing up in a public school board. I am doing this course as part of my Masters of Education (Information Technologies) as my role provides me with a unique leadership position where I am not responsible for any teachers but yet responsible for supporting all teachers in their use of technology in the classroom.

  • What do you think may have been the demands, key issues and dilemmas facing educational leaders/managers when you were attending school?
    • Finances for resources
    • Equality
    • Parent expectations of their children
    • Political pressures for curriculum, class sizes etc.
    • Delivering content
    • Teacher -centred approach
    • Limited support for students with learning needs and special education students
    • Accountability
  • Reflect upon the current professional setting in which you are working and note down the demands, key issues and dilemmas facing yourself as a leader/administrator. Alternatively, if you are aspiring to leadership/management, list the demands, key issues and dilemmas facing leaders/administrators in your workplace
    • Parents as stakeholders (private school setting) - expectations and demands
    • Time (in general)
    • Professional Development for teachers - Staying current with teaching practice
    • Teacher shortage ( in public domains, international schools not facing this issue); Finding highly qualified staff
    • Continually upgraded technology resources (finances)
    • Technology integration
    • Diversity
    • Developing learning environments - flexible learning, finances
    • Developing skills not content
    • Student-centered approach - diverse needs, individualised
    • Strategic planning - forward thinking, backwards by design
    • Accountability - use of data driving instruction
    • School vision
    • Changing teaching roles to more of facilitators
    • Inquiry learning
    • Competing with other private schools for enrollment
  • Are there areas that you have listed that are the same on the two lists? What areas/issues/dilemmas have you listed that are different?
    • Budgeting and finances - resources, staffing, operational needs
    • Teacher professional development
    • Student behavior
    • Parent expectations- change in parent expectations from student to expectations of the school
    • Accountability - although changes to who school is accountable to
    • Staying current trends
    • Time

  • Reflect: What key events have occurred in the world and in our lives which may have led to these differences?
    • Some of the biggest changes have been due to the advances in technology. Technology has become more readily available and more affordable. Students have technology at home and now it’s been brought into the educational setting. This changes the learning environment by extending it beyond the classroom and also impacts how teachers must teach. Teachers are now facilitators in the learning environment supporting and co-creating with their students. No longer must teachers be the sole expert but one of many in the classroom. Teachers require more professional development as the educational setting continues to evolve in order to stay current.
    • Research is becoming more prominent and more available to educators. Many teachers are becoming researchers themselves as they document their action research. Because of the increase in educational research, educators must continue to stay current by reading up on best practice and again, ensure they are receiving professional development to help them put this learning into their classroom.
    • For many countries (like my home country of Canada), there have been changes in the government since I was in school. With the changes of political parties, there is changes to funding, teacher expectation, policies and even curriculum. This continues to be an area that educators have to be aware of to ensure they are aware of the changes as they occur.

Tuesday 9 August 2016

Module 1: Designs for Social Learning

As I worked through the rubric identifying where I believed myself and the international school that I work at falls on, I was pleasantly surprised.

My shading fell under ‘more recent times’ and/or ‘new learning’ with blurred lines often between the two. I believe in empowering our students to learn what they want, where they want and when they want to. This is changing the institutional locations fo learning. Whether it’s students inquiring into their personal interests at home or in the community or supporting a younger student develop their learning of a topic, the four walls of the classroom are no longer stuck in place. Rather we have a global classroom at our fingertips as we can connect with other learners and experts from around the globe.

I am fortunate to work at a school with a plentiful amount of technology, allowing the tools for learning to be under ‘new learning’. What is most important now, is that we are asking the hard questions about what is happening with these technologies. It is not enough to just have them anymore. How we are using these devices for education and personalisation of learning environments is becoming more and more under the microscope.

I strongly believe students should have agency in their education. To see ‘new learning’ shaded for the balance of agency was not a surprise. Working in an inquiry school encourages our students to ask their own questions and seek answers to solve them. Students often take action through their inquiries and teachers are merely the facilitators of this learning. The responsibility of teachers is changing as they become one of many learners and experts in the classroom.

Saturday 6 August 2016

Module 1: Future of Learning Reflection

It was interesting watching Future of Teaching which was created in 2011 and comparing it to how today’s role of the teacher is. I believe that he is correct in saying that we need to use the tools we have to teach students more effectively. In our Early Years classroom, we have a set of 5 iPads per class and 4 iMacs. On almost a weekly basis, I hear one teacher saying that she needs more in order to do her job. But instead of asking for more, we should be looking at how we can use what we have and leverage this technology to benefit our students and facilitate learning. In the Early Years classrooms, students should have time for play-based learning, exploring and inquiring in the world around them. If every child had an iPad, it would be tempting to glue them all to them. In addition, with  the current iPads, how can we use them most effectively? Are we having students simply play drill and kill games? Or are we nurturing higher-order thinking through application and creation?

Personalised learning environments is something I am very passionate about and often use technology to facilitate this. By providing students choice and voice in how their learn content and demonstrate their understanding of it, they gain a deeper understanding of the content.

Introduction - Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

Hi all, 
Great to see familiar names/faces popping up in the introductions already :) Hard to believe the journey is coming to an end so quickly! I'm finishing off my last 2 courses for my Masters of Education (Information Technologies) this term. I'm also taking  Educational Leadership in Contemporary Organisations. I'm looking forward to reflecting over the past year and a bit and really seeing how my thinking and practice has evolved. 
I'm currently living and working in Singapore at an international school as the Education Technology Coach. I've been in the role a year now and prior taught Year 5 for 2 years at the school. I have also worked in Beijing, Toronto and briefly in Japan. 
Mishra & Koehler's TPACK has been a reoccurring theme in my courses helping us think about how technology is integrated and the need for multiple types of knowledge to ensure effective integration. Vygotsky has always been a key player in my educational career. It has been nice to look back on a lot of educational theorists such as Howard Gardner, Jean Piaget,  and then learning new theorists such as George Siemens and his connectivism theory. As an education technology coach, this helped me think deeper into how students, teachers, and our communities are connected locally and globally and how we can best use these connections to develop a broader and more meaningful understanding of topics studied. 
Congratulations everyone on making it to their last course and best of luck this term! :)

Thursday 19 May 2016

Week 9 - Problem solving from a leadership perspective

One key issue is ensuring ongoing professional development meets the needs of turnover with staff and ongoing changes to technology to create implement effective pedagogy with technology integration. Every staff member is going to be at slightly different places on their learning journey with technology and it is crucial that, just like with our students, we try to meet all their needs. In international schools, there is a high turnover rate in comparison to public government-funded schools. This means that every year is a challenge to bring teachers up to a base level of knowledge when joining a school. It is important that the professional development is timely and ongoing according to Flanagan & Jacobsen (2003). While our school has a lot of professional development run by the education technology department, it also needs to be prioritized by the senior leadership team of both primary and secondary so that teachers feel the need to continue to upskill. Technology is constantly changing. Therefore, the professional development needs to continue to evolve with the technology with a focus on pedagogy and transferable skills to ensure teachers feel that professional development is a good use of their time. Some strategies to approach this problem would be for looking for edtech leaders within the organisation or each year group to mentor their teammates and find times to allow staff members to work together on personal goals in a collaborative environment.

Flanagan,L. & Jacobsen, M. (2003).Technology leadership for the twenty-first century principal, Journal of Educational Administration, 41( 2), 124 - 142.

Week 8 - ICT Resource Management Planning

Younie (2006) suggests that the UK ICT implementation had many challenges at the micro level such as slow internet and lack of technology in schools. In an international school, this is very much the opposite. We have a plethora of resources available to use with quality internet speed, funding to support new technology initiatives, education technology coaches to support staff and students and access to a number of different platforms for technology. The biggest challenge at the school micro level is that we have comes back to teacher training. With all of this technology and the international school turnover rate, teachers are constantly needing to be trained and upskilled to use the technology we do have effectively. At times, I wonder if so much technology being available to staff can be overwhelming. My role as a technology coach is to support teachers in figuring out what technologies are best for which task to make the learning meaningful and the technology integration enhance their learning.
Thinking from my Canadian experience, it is sometimes challenging for schools to gain buy-in on policies that were created by individuals who are not on the ground working with children and the technology every day. There is often a disconnect between a policy being created at the macro level and practice at the micro level. Policy creating takes time and with the changing of technology so quickly, it is essential that a policy for ICT implementation is created with this mind to allow for innovation and change. It is also important for policies to be reviewed and reflected on a yearly (at minimum) to ensure that what is written fits the needs of what is happening in reality.
I think international schools are unique to government schools as the school has more control over the policies for education. This can be both good and bad. While we don’t have a government creating the policies for us, we do still need to answer to certain governing or accrediting bodies. Firstly, we have our board of directors that oversee what happens in terms of policies in the school. We are accredited by WASC (Western Association of Schools and Colleges), the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) as an IB World School as well as EduTrust (Singapore governing body). Our policies and procedures need to meet the needs of all of our accrediting bodies. This can be tedious when each are slightly different while also creating policies that meet the individual needs of our school community. The Singapore government requires are quite different than an inquiry approach for the IBO, which can be challenging when creating policies. WASC and IBO are more similar in their accreditation processes and expectations of evidence, which makes creating policies at the school level easier when the accrediting bodies are aligned.
Our school looks to a lot of other schools who are similar to ours to see what they are doing. This greatly influences our own policies as we combine various policies to meet the needs of our community. While we borrow some, we also have to make sure our policies fit our specific environment and community. Therefore, we are constantly reviewing, adapting and ensuring that our policies are guiding us forward.
We do not have any ICT specific planning documents that we use. For next year, we are generating a large database of appropriate, tested and vetted technology resources for staff that support the different ICT skills in the PYP (International Baccalaureate, 2011) for teachers to reference. If the resource/software is not on the list, then they must apply through a Google Form explaining their rationale for wanting to use the resource and how it would be incorporated into their teaching and learning. This will help us gather more data on how and what teachers are using technology for in their classroom. In addition, our budget serves as an inventory of paid subscriptions and purchases every year. I also create various documents to keep a record of technology resources such as a spreadsheet with the various iPad apps stored on the iPads at different grade levels. Overall, I create a lot of my own planning documents for various tasks to demonstrate how I’m planning out technology integration across the Primary school so it’s been great to see some examples.
International Baccalaureate. (2011). The Role of ICT in the PYP. UK: International Baccalaureate.

Younie, S. (2006). Implementing government policy on ICT in education: Lessons learnt. Education & Information Technologies, 11(3/4), 385-400. doi:10.1007/s10639-006-9017-1

Tuesday 17 May 2016

Module 7 - Curriculum Development for ICT integration Part 2

Technology has really changed the way we teach. As technology becomes more prevalent in education, its impact on education continues to evolve. No longer are we teaching in traditional ways or focusing on traditional technology tools, rather how we can use the best tool for the best possible learning experience and expression of our students’ knowledge (ACARA, 2012).  ICT is constantly changing and adapting and education must find a way to continue to adapt to it yet have a state of constant for our students at the same time. One way to do this is to focus on the transdisciplinary skills such as creating, communicating, collaborating, building knowledge, managing their tools as the students of today prepare for the unknown jobs of tomorrow.  
Working in an international school, I find myself with a plethora of technology resources easily accessible to me. However, I know that back home in Canada I would not have the same luxuries in the public and Catholic educational systems. This would make me believe that it would be a similar experience in Australia. I wonder how teachers are finding the ACARA guidelines if they don’t have the resources to implement the ICT capabilities across the year groups and subjects effectively. On the flip side, are schools with an abundance of technology really impacting the teaching and learning in the way we hope it would? If some schools struggle with not enough technology, is it possible that at times the other end of the spectrum of too much technology occurs in some classes?  
The ICT capabilities in the Australian curriculum (ACARA,2010) are similar to the International Baccalaureate ICT skills in the PYP. The ACARA ICT capabilities consist of 5 capabilities with a continuum across all year groups through 6 levels. The capabilities include:
  • Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
  • Investigating with ICT
  • Creating with ICT
  • Communicating with ICT
  • Managing and operating ICT
It is easy to see how this can be paired up with 6  the International Baccalaureate ICT in PYP skills (2011). They include:
  • Investigating
  • Collaborating
  • Creating
  • Organising
  • Communicating
  • Becoming Digital Citizens
This allows teachers to look through the various lens when developing curriculum and think about the skills students need to develop and demonstrate in order to be successful (International Baccalaureate, 2011). These technology skills need to run across many platforms and devices. Technology can support varying and diverse needs of students to help enhance their experience to be more equitable (ACARA, 2010). With the rise of BYOD, learning spaces have also evolved with the increase in mobility and the need for flexible learning spaces for collaboration. Students need to learn how to find valid resources and think critically about their findings rather than to just search and answer questions. Technology allows for more transdisciplinary learning as various subjects can be woven together through visual literacies and online platform. In addition, technology has forced schools to educate students about digital citizenship and appropriate online behaviour.  Technology is pushing our students to become more critical and creative thinkers in an ever-changing society.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2012, March) Draft Shape of the Australian Curriculum - Technologies. Retrieved from:

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2010). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability. Retrieved from

International Baccalaureate. (2011). The Role of ICT in the PYP. UK: International Baccalaureate.

Monday 16 May 2016

Module 7 - Curriculum Development for ICT integration

The Proctor et. al article looks at one way of measuring the way ICT has been integrated into the curriculum in schools. In your organisation/school do you have a way of assessing the degree to which you are integrating ICT into your classrooms? Do you measure the impact of the use of ICT in your organisation? If you don't, why not? If you do, what instrument, tool, or process do you use?

As Proctor et al (2003) suggest, the measurement of effective ICT integration is quite challenging. In my setting, we have teachers self-evaluate their technology skills and competence at the beginning and mid-year. This data helps us support the planning of professional development to meet the overall needs of our staff.

Currently, we do not have something to measure the impact of technology use in our organisation at a large scale. However, I am interested to look for ways to measure data and have data driven dialogues to help move us forward. I’d be interested to hear what other schools are currently doing to help measure this data. A lot of our conversations with teachers are around the purpose of their technology integration: Is it achieving the desired learning outcome? How is it enhancing the learning experience for students (Proctor et al., 2003, p. 69). These informal discussions are great sources of informal data which can help us better understand teachers’ approaches to technology integration. The SAMR model is one way to help teachers understand how they are using technology for integration.

Much of the data that I gather for different trials I have been involved with (ie 2-to-1 teacher devices) is anecdotal. This can be challenging to measure growth. However, you can often see the changes in patterns and growth.

When our school became a 1-to-1 laptop school, there was a clear decision from the administration that ICT skills for students would not be assessed (ie, typing, etc). However, there would be more of a focus on transdisciplinary skills such as visual literacy, research skills etc. These skills would be a source of teaching points and commented on in reports but not given a numerical value. Because of this, it makes it challenging to gather concrete data on student skills as a way to inform future planning. That being said, I’d be interested in giving our students a survey at the beginning or end of year to see what skills they have and what skills need to still be developed according to students’ self-assessment.

The Voogt & Pegrum article looks at the ways in which ICT integration has changed the curriculum in a number of schools. Their conclusions are interesting. To what extent to their findings mirror your own school or organisations experiences
Reading Voogt & Pelgrum (2005) really resonated with me. Our school pedagogies are definitely becoming more student-driven and inquiry based with the teachers in the role of facilitators and supports. ICT has become more woven and embedded into the curriculum with less focus on tools and more on what they are trying to achieve. Skills that can be transferred between disciplines are also emphasised with a focus on skills that will be long-lasting. Our inquiry approach to teaching focuses more on collaboration and creation with students exploring their own inquiries based on personal interest and sharing their findings. Because an inquiry model is a focus for our pedagogy, it changes how teaching and integration of technology in the classroom. Our school has invested a lot into professional development to support teachers in developing a transdisciplinary and inquiry classroom. Through planning with the education technology coach, the teachers and coach can work to support students with this model and find the most meaningful ways to integrate technology.


Proctor, R., Watson, G. and Finger, G. (2003). Measuring information and communication technology (ICT) curriculum integration.Computers in the Schools, 20(4): 67–87.

Voogt, J., & Pelgrum, H. (2005). ICT and curriculum change. Human Technology, 1(2), 157-175.

Saturday 14 May 2016

Module 6: Educational Leadership and Models of ICT Decision Making Part 2

The second site is a link to some planning documents from the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Don't worry if you are not in a school - or in Victoria or Australia. These documents are designed to help in a school's planning for the use of ICT. In your current (or future) role, do you have documents or a site that's similar? Are you provided with resources like this in another way? How useful would these resources be do you think? Post any links you might have to similar documents to share - if you are able!
We do not have any such document similar to the resources posted as the second link for module 6. The school strategic plan does incorporate aspects of technology but in no way as extensive as this. I think that this type of model helps the technology department really have a clear direction and I am looking forward to using something similar to map out where we are going as a school for next year. I think it will also help me feel more confident in my role with a clear direction. The challenge with education technology though is that it is not a department that can work separate from any other department. Thus, a lot of what would be on there would also have to be in the Primary strategic plan as well. This means developing good working relationships with the Primary school and all departments are crucial to the successful implementation of a strategic plan once created.
The third link looks at the idea of having organisational "Champions" as a possible leadership strategy. Have you used this idea in your organisation? Given the findings of the research in this article, to what extent might this now influence your approach to ICT in your organisation?
A champion is someone who is leading the way with innovation and enthusiasm to implement a creative idea. In Stuart, A. M. Mills, et al. (2009), it is suggested that a champion of ICT implementation should also have a certain level of ICT capability and competence in order to encourage others to also implement technology. I think my international school very much sees the importance of someone championing ICT integration as they have invested in a full-time staff member as an Education Technology Coach. In this role, I believe it is my job to do much of the championing for ICT integration and also find those who are enthusiastic to help champion the innovative ideas in our organisation that need to be rolled out on a whole school scale. Our school ensures that our EdTech Coach and Director of EdTech both have experience and knowledge in ICT and continually stay up to date with best practice by allowing them professional development opportunities around southeast Asia to continue to upscale their knowledge. In addition, we try to promote a positive outlook towards technology at school focusing on how it can support teaching and learning and help teachers do this in a more efficient and effective manner. Finally, we want out teachers to have a positive outlook to using technology so we have regular professional development opportunities to build their ICT knowledge and give them hands-on experiences using ICT (Stuart, A. M. Mills, et al., 2009). From there we ensure we continue to support innovation with teachers on an ongoing basis in both formal and informal settings.
For me, the most important part of ICT leadership and the idea of championing innovations is that whatever is done within the school must support the school mission and vision. It is imperative that leaders see how technology fits into the overall vision for the school and not a separate component (Stuart, A. M. Mills, et al., 2009). It truly needs to be woven into one in order to be successful. If teachers and administrators can see how technology is a part of our overarching goals, they will have more buy in and be willing to explore technology use more.  

The last link (which you will have seen from the last module) deals with professional development, but this of course is an key element of leadership in this field. In the context of ICT leadership, in what ways might you deal with developments in technology that are always changing and where this always something new and "cool" being introduced as "educational technology". The iPad is one example of this. How reactive do you need to be and how much planning can you do when you are not sure what is around the corner
Technology is constantly evolving and changing. This makes a role like mine so exciting as we try to see how the latest technologies can have educational application. That being said, I am always cautiously optimistic with anything that I try. I think it’s important not to just jump 100% in and buy the next technology gadget for the whole school when it is released. Rather, look at trialling things on a smaller scale, evaluating whether they will be effective in different areas of teaching and learning and then look at moving the whole school if that is the way to go.

There is something exciting about exploring new innovative ideas but you also have to evaluate if this technology will be around in another year or two and for the look for the right tool for the job. Armfield (2011) suggests that when implementing something on a whole school scale, everyone needs to be working towards the same goal and there needs to be reflection throughout the process.

Before integration any tool into my teaching I look at it from a larger school - what learning/ professional development do my students/teachers need? What do we already have that does similar things? What does it allow us to do that we aren’t already doing? How will it impact the other systems we already have in place? There are a lot of questions that need to be answered before implementing.

The process of planning, designing, implementing and evaluating is an important cycle (Armfield, 2011). Planning for effective integration allows teachers to move through this cycle in a way that makes them think critically about the tools they wish to use. Ultimately, if the new technology is the best resource for the task at hand and is properly planned out, students can benefit from new and innovative technologies in the classroom.

Stuart, L. H., A. M. Mills, et al. (2009). "School leaders, ICT competence and championing innovations." Computers & Education 53(3): 733-741.
Armfield, S. (2011). Technology leadership for school improvement Planning, designing, implementing and evaluating technology, pp. 109-128, 2011. in Technology and Leadership for School Improvement. Papa, R. (Ed) California :Sage

Tuesday 10 May 2016

Module 6: Educational Leadership and Models of ICT Decision Making

As an education technology coach, I can definitely relate to the article by Devolder, Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur (2010). On any given day, I am switching the hats that I wear in my role many, many times. I’m constantly moving from a coaching role to a consulting role to a coordinator role to an advocate and back again.

I would say the majoring of my time is split between leading professional development by supporting students and teacher and planning for implementation. Planning allows me to collaborate on curriculum development and changes with our teachers (Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur, 2010, p. 1652). I meet with year groups each week to support them in the planning process. I also spend a lot of time developing new school initiatives or developing policies related to my role. In terms of implementation, this includes me getting into classes to co-teach and support teachers and students. This role also always me to work toward implementation through formalized professional development sessions or one-on-one coaching.

As per Lai & Pratt (2004, as cited in Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur, 2010), my role does have a budgetary and resource allocation component but it is also shared with the director of education technology. Therefore I am not the one making the budget but suggesting ideas and reviewing others’ proposed purchases. In addition, I have to ensure that the resources we have are working for what we need them for and advocate for more resources when necessary.

In terms of the ‘nuts and bolts’ that Marcovitz (1998, 2000 as cited in Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur, 2010), I try to minimize my role in the technical and repair component of it. This is the role of our IT manager who is phenomenal at the technical side of our operations. That being said, teachers still come to me regularly to fix their problem. It is important for me to acknowledge when I am capable of supporting them and when I need to refer them to the experts. When possible, I do try my best to problem solve with teachers as it can be frustrating when things aren’t working and it is also part of my emphasis on building relationships whenever possible.


Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J. & Tondeur, J. (2010). Identifying multiple roles of ICT coordinators, Computers & Education, Vol.55(4), pp.1651-1655.

Sunday 8 May 2016

Professional Development Part 2

The model I've come to focus on is one that many businesses use as there will always be resistance.  Geoffrey Moore (2001) outlines this idea of ‘Crossing the Chasm’. I focus my time on 3 groups: 1. the technology enthusiasts when I want to trial things and always have great feedback and engagement 2. the visionaries when we want to look at big ideas we want to implement 3.pragmatists for developing skills. The first 2 groups don't need much convincing to attend professional development and often seek it out on their own. Teach the willing, and others will follow when they see growth and results. The conservatives are more willing to learn things once they have seen the pragmatists be successful. Staggered PD with repeated sessions later in the year can be helpful for meeting their needs and skeptics may never take the jump or resist until they have to. It is also a reality that unfortunately I will never be able to meet everyones needs to I work to impact the most people in the most effective and efficient model. In addition, I find that people from across this spectrum will come to me one-on-one for just in time PD and these short sessions (as little as 5 minutes) can be more powerful than sessions for some people.

Friday 6 May 2016

Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators

Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators
Mid-Term Impact Trend: Driving Ed Tech adoption in K-12 education for three to five years
Key Points:
  • The action of creating content over consuming content a growing trend
  • New mobile technology supporting content creation
  • Social media apps on the rise → quick informal sharing of stories
  • Game development and programming key to creation trend
  • Digital tools support creativity and production skills
  • Apps streamlining the process of creating, editing, and publishing for tutorial making
  • Creating can make a complex concept easier to explain
  • Video tutorials allow teachers to share content → teachers need the confidence to create them
  • With increased content creation, issues around intellectual property more prevalent
  • Need to educate schools, students and teachers in copyright and fair use
  • Acceptable use policies need to protect student creations
Further Suggested Reading:
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Retrieved from: