Thursday 19 May 2016

Week 9 - Problem solving from a leadership perspective

One key issue is ensuring ongoing professional development meets the needs of turnover with staff and ongoing changes to technology to create implement effective pedagogy with technology integration. Every staff member is going to be at slightly different places on their learning journey with technology and it is crucial that, just like with our students, we try to meet all their needs. In international schools, there is a high turnover rate in comparison to public government-funded schools. This means that every year is a challenge to bring teachers up to a base level of knowledge when joining a school. It is important that the professional development is timely and ongoing according to Flanagan & Jacobsen (2003). While our school has a lot of professional development run by the education technology department, it also needs to be prioritized by the senior leadership team of both primary and secondary so that teachers feel the need to continue to upskill. Technology is constantly changing. Therefore, the professional development needs to continue to evolve with the technology with a focus on pedagogy and transferable skills to ensure teachers feel that professional development is a good use of their time. Some strategies to approach this problem would be for looking for edtech leaders within the organisation or each year group to mentor their teammates and find times to allow staff members to work together on personal goals in a collaborative environment.

Flanagan,L. & Jacobsen, M. (2003).Technology leadership for the twenty-first century principal, Journal of Educational Administration, 41( 2), 124 - 142.

Week 8 - ICT Resource Management Planning

Younie (2006) suggests that the UK ICT implementation had many challenges at the micro level such as slow internet and lack of technology in schools. In an international school, this is very much the opposite. We have a plethora of resources available to use with quality internet speed, funding to support new technology initiatives, education technology coaches to support staff and students and access to a number of different platforms for technology. The biggest challenge at the school micro level is that we have comes back to teacher training. With all of this technology and the international school turnover rate, teachers are constantly needing to be trained and upskilled to use the technology we do have effectively. At times, I wonder if so much technology being available to staff can be overwhelming. My role as a technology coach is to support teachers in figuring out what technologies are best for which task to make the learning meaningful and the technology integration enhance their learning.
Thinking from my Canadian experience, it is sometimes challenging for schools to gain buy-in on policies that were created by individuals who are not on the ground working with children and the technology every day. There is often a disconnect between a policy being created at the macro level and practice at the micro level. Policy creating takes time and with the changing of technology so quickly, it is essential that a policy for ICT implementation is created with this mind to allow for innovation and change. It is also important for policies to be reviewed and reflected on a yearly (at minimum) to ensure that what is written fits the needs of what is happening in reality.
I think international schools are unique to government schools as the school has more control over the policies for education. This can be both good and bad. While we don’t have a government creating the policies for us, we do still need to answer to certain governing or accrediting bodies. Firstly, we have our board of directors that oversee what happens in terms of policies in the school. We are accredited by WASC (Western Association of Schools and Colleges), the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) as an IB World School as well as EduTrust (Singapore governing body). Our policies and procedures need to meet the needs of all of our accrediting bodies. This can be tedious when each are slightly different while also creating policies that meet the individual needs of our school community. The Singapore government requires are quite different than an inquiry approach for the IBO, which can be challenging when creating policies. WASC and IBO are more similar in their accreditation processes and expectations of evidence, which makes creating policies at the school level easier when the accrediting bodies are aligned.
Our school looks to a lot of other schools who are similar to ours to see what they are doing. This greatly influences our own policies as we combine various policies to meet the needs of our community. While we borrow some, we also have to make sure our policies fit our specific environment and community. Therefore, we are constantly reviewing, adapting and ensuring that our policies are guiding us forward.
We do not have any ICT specific planning documents that we use. For next year, we are generating a large database of appropriate, tested and vetted technology resources for staff that support the different ICT skills in the PYP (International Baccalaureate, 2011) for teachers to reference. If the resource/software is not on the list, then they must apply through a Google Form explaining their rationale for wanting to use the resource and how it would be incorporated into their teaching and learning. This will help us gather more data on how and what teachers are using technology for in their classroom. In addition, our budget serves as an inventory of paid subscriptions and purchases every year. I also create various documents to keep a record of technology resources such as a spreadsheet with the various iPad apps stored on the iPads at different grade levels. Overall, I create a lot of my own planning documents for various tasks to demonstrate how I’m planning out technology integration across the Primary school so it’s been great to see some examples.
International Baccalaureate. (2011). The Role of ICT in the PYP. UK: International Baccalaureate.

Younie, S. (2006). Implementing government policy on ICT in education: Lessons learnt. Education & Information Technologies, 11(3/4), 385-400. doi:10.1007/s10639-006-9017-1

Tuesday 17 May 2016

Module 7 - Curriculum Development for ICT integration Part 2

Technology has really changed the way we teach. As technology becomes more prevalent in education, its impact on education continues to evolve. No longer are we teaching in traditional ways or focusing on traditional technology tools, rather how we can use the best tool for the best possible learning experience and expression of our students’ knowledge (ACARA, 2012).  ICT is constantly changing and adapting and education must find a way to continue to adapt to it yet have a state of constant for our students at the same time. One way to do this is to focus on the transdisciplinary skills such as creating, communicating, collaborating, building knowledge, managing their tools as the students of today prepare for the unknown jobs of tomorrow.  
Working in an international school, I find myself with a plethora of technology resources easily accessible to me. However, I know that back home in Canada I would not have the same luxuries in the public and Catholic educational systems. This would make me believe that it would be a similar experience in Australia. I wonder how teachers are finding the ACARA guidelines if they don’t have the resources to implement the ICT capabilities across the year groups and subjects effectively. On the flip side, are schools with an abundance of technology really impacting the teaching and learning in the way we hope it would? If some schools struggle with not enough technology, is it possible that at times the other end of the spectrum of too much technology occurs in some classes?  
The ICT capabilities in the Australian curriculum (ACARA,2010) are similar to the International Baccalaureate ICT skills in the PYP. The ACARA ICT capabilities consist of 5 capabilities with a continuum across all year groups through 6 levels. The capabilities include:
  • Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
  • Investigating with ICT
  • Creating with ICT
  • Communicating with ICT
  • Managing and operating ICT
It is easy to see how this can be paired up with 6  the International Baccalaureate ICT in PYP skills (2011). They include:
  • Investigating
  • Collaborating
  • Creating
  • Organising
  • Communicating
  • Becoming Digital Citizens
This allows teachers to look through the various lens when developing curriculum and think about the skills students need to develop and demonstrate in order to be successful (International Baccalaureate, 2011). These technology skills need to run across many platforms and devices. Technology can support varying and diverse needs of students to help enhance their experience to be more equitable (ACARA, 2010). With the rise of BYOD, learning spaces have also evolved with the increase in mobility and the need for flexible learning spaces for collaboration. Students need to learn how to find valid resources and think critically about their findings rather than to just search and answer questions. Technology allows for more transdisciplinary learning as various subjects can be woven together through visual literacies and online platform. In addition, technology has forced schools to educate students about digital citizenship and appropriate online behaviour.  Technology is pushing our students to become more critical and creative thinkers in an ever-changing society.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2012, March) Draft Shape of the Australian Curriculum - Technologies. Retrieved from:

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2010). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability. Retrieved from

International Baccalaureate. (2011). The Role of ICT in the PYP. UK: International Baccalaureate.

Monday 16 May 2016

Module 7 - Curriculum Development for ICT integration

The Proctor et. al article looks at one way of measuring the way ICT has been integrated into the curriculum in schools. In your organisation/school do you have a way of assessing the degree to which you are integrating ICT into your classrooms? Do you measure the impact of the use of ICT in your organisation? If you don't, why not? If you do, what instrument, tool, or process do you use?

As Proctor et al (2003) suggest, the measurement of effective ICT integration is quite challenging. In my setting, we have teachers self-evaluate their technology skills and competence at the beginning and mid-year. This data helps us support the planning of professional development to meet the overall needs of our staff.

Currently, we do not have something to measure the impact of technology use in our organisation at a large scale. However, I am interested to look for ways to measure data and have data driven dialogues to help move us forward. I’d be interested to hear what other schools are currently doing to help measure this data. A lot of our conversations with teachers are around the purpose of their technology integration: Is it achieving the desired learning outcome? How is it enhancing the learning experience for students (Proctor et al., 2003, p. 69). These informal discussions are great sources of informal data which can help us better understand teachers’ approaches to technology integration. The SAMR model is one way to help teachers understand how they are using technology for integration.

Much of the data that I gather for different trials I have been involved with (ie 2-to-1 teacher devices) is anecdotal. This can be challenging to measure growth. However, you can often see the changes in patterns and growth.

When our school became a 1-to-1 laptop school, there was a clear decision from the administration that ICT skills for students would not be assessed (ie, typing, etc). However, there would be more of a focus on transdisciplinary skills such as visual literacy, research skills etc. These skills would be a source of teaching points and commented on in reports but not given a numerical value. Because of this, it makes it challenging to gather concrete data on student skills as a way to inform future planning. That being said, I’d be interested in giving our students a survey at the beginning or end of year to see what skills they have and what skills need to still be developed according to students’ self-assessment.

The Voogt & Pegrum article looks at the ways in which ICT integration has changed the curriculum in a number of schools. Their conclusions are interesting. To what extent to their findings mirror your own school or organisations experiences
Reading Voogt & Pelgrum (2005) really resonated with me. Our school pedagogies are definitely becoming more student-driven and inquiry based with the teachers in the role of facilitators and supports. ICT has become more woven and embedded into the curriculum with less focus on tools and more on what they are trying to achieve. Skills that can be transferred between disciplines are also emphasised with a focus on skills that will be long-lasting. Our inquiry approach to teaching focuses more on collaboration and creation with students exploring their own inquiries based on personal interest and sharing their findings. Because an inquiry model is a focus for our pedagogy, it changes how teaching and integration of technology in the classroom. Our school has invested a lot into professional development to support teachers in developing a transdisciplinary and inquiry classroom. Through planning with the education technology coach, the teachers and coach can work to support students with this model and find the most meaningful ways to integrate technology.


Proctor, R., Watson, G. and Finger, G. (2003). Measuring information and communication technology (ICT) curriculum integration.Computers in the Schools, 20(4): 67–87.

Voogt, J., & Pelgrum, H. (2005). ICT and curriculum change. Human Technology, 1(2), 157-175.

Saturday 14 May 2016

Module 6: Educational Leadership and Models of ICT Decision Making Part 2

The second site is a link to some planning documents from the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Don't worry if you are not in a school - or in Victoria or Australia. These documents are designed to help in a school's planning for the use of ICT. In your current (or future) role, do you have documents or a site that's similar? Are you provided with resources like this in another way? How useful would these resources be do you think? Post any links you might have to similar documents to share - if you are able!
We do not have any such document similar to the resources posted as the second link for module 6. The school strategic plan does incorporate aspects of technology but in no way as extensive as this. I think that this type of model helps the technology department really have a clear direction and I am looking forward to using something similar to map out where we are going as a school for next year. I think it will also help me feel more confident in my role with a clear direction. The challenge with education technology though is that it is not a department that can work separate from any other department. Thus, a lot of what would be on there would also have to be in the Primary strategic plan as well. This means developing good working relationships with the Primary school and all departments are crucial to the successful implementation of a strategic plan once created.
The third link looks at the idea of having organisational "Champions" as a possible leadership strategy. Have you used this idea in your organisation? Given the findings of the research in this article, to what extent might this now influence your approach to ICT in your organisation?
A champion is someone who is leading the way with innovation and enthusiasm to implement a creative idea. In Stuart, A. M. Mills, et al. (2009), it is suggested that a champion of ICT implementation should also have a certain level of ICT capability and competence in order to encourage others to also implement technology. I think my international school very much sees the importance of someone championing ICT integration as they have invested in a full-time staff member as an Education Technology Coach. In this role, I believe it is my job to do much of the championing for ICT integration and also find those who are enthusiastic to help champion the innovative ideas in our organisation that need to be rolled out on a whole school scale. Our school ensures that our EdTech Coach and Director of EdTech both have experience and knowledge in ICT and continually stay up to date with best practice by allowing them professional development opportunities around southeast Asia to continue to upscale their knowledge. In addition, we try to promote a positive outlook towards technology at school focusing on how it can support teaching and learning and help teachers do this in a more efficient and effective manner. Finally, we want out teachers to have a positive outlook to using technology so we have regular professional development opportunities to build their ICT knowledge and give them hands-on experiences using ICT (Stuart, A. M. Mills, et al., 2009). From there we ensure we continue to support innovation with teachers on an ongoing basis in both formal and informal settings.
For me, the most important part of ICT leadership and the idea of championing innovations is that whatever is done within the school must support the school mission and vision. It is imperative that leaders see how technology fits into the overall vision for the school and not a separate component (Stuart, A. M. Mills, et al., 2009). It truly needs to be woven into one in order to be successful. If teachers and administrators can see how technology is a part of our overarching goals, they will have more buy in and be willing to explore technology use more.  

The last link (which you will have seen from the last module) deals with professional development, but this of course is an key element of leadership in this field. In the context of ICT leadership, in what ways might you deal with developments in technology that are always changing and where this always something new and "cool" being introduced as "educational technology". The iPad is one example of this. How reactive do you need to be and how much planning can you do when you are not sure what is around the corner
Technology is constantly evolving and changing. This makes a role like mine so exciting as we try to see how the latest technologies can have educational application. That being said, I am always cautiously optimistic with anything that I try. I think it’s important not to just jump 100% in and buy the next technology gadget for the whole school when it is released. Rather, look at trialling things on a smaller scale, evaluating whether they will be effective in different areas of teaching and learning and then look at moving the whole school if that is the way to go.

There is something exciting about exploring new innovative ideas but you also have to evaluate if this technology will be around in another year or two and for the look for the right tool for the job. Armfield (2011) suggests that when implementing something on a whole school scale, everyone needs to be working towards the same goal and there needs to be reflection throughout the process.

Before integration any tool into my teaching I look at it from a larger school - what learning/ professional development do my students/teachers need? What do we already have that does similar things? What does it allow us to do that we aren’t already doing? How will it impact the other systems we already have in place? There are a lot of questions that need to be answered before implementing.

The process of planning, designing, implementing and evaluating is an important cycle (Armfield, 2011). Planning for effective integration allows teachers to move through this cycle in a way that makes them think critically about the tools they wish to use. Ultimately, if the new technology is the best resource for the task at hand and is properly planned out, students can benefit from new and innovative technologies in the classroom.

Stuart, L. H., A. M. Mills, et al. (2009). "School leaders, ICT competence and championing innovations." Computers & Education 53(3): 733-741.
Armfield, S. (2011). Technology leadership for school improvement Planning, designing, implementing and evaluating technology, pp. 109-128, 2011. in Technology and Leadership for School Improvement. Papa, R. (Ed) California :Sage

Tuesday 10 May 2016

Module 6: Educational Leadership and Models of ICT Decision Making

As an education technology coach, I can definitely relate to the article by Devolder, Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur (2010). On any given day, I am switching the hats that I wear in my role many, many times. I’m constantly moving from a coaching role to a consulting role to a coordinator role to an advocate and back again.

I would say the majoring of my time is split between leading professional development by supporting students and teacher and planning for implementation. Planning allows me to collaborate on curriculum development and changes with our teachers (Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur, 2010, p. 1652). I meet with year groups each week to support them in the planning process. I also spend a lot of time developing new school initiatives or developing policies related to my role. In terms of implementation, this includes me getting into classes to co-teach and support teachers and students. This role also always me to work toward implementation through formalized professional development sessions or one-on-one coaching.

As per Lai & Pratt (2004, as cited in Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur, 2010), my role does have a budgetary and resource allocation component but it is also shared with the director of education technology. Therefore I am not the one making the budget but suggesting ideas and reviewing others’ proposed purchases. In addition, I have to ensure that the resources we have are working for what we need them for and advocate for more resources when necessary.

In terms of the ‘nuts and bolts’ that Marcovitz (1998, 2000 as cited in Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, van Braak & Tondeur, 2010), I try to minimize my role in the technical and repair component of it. This is the role of our IT manager who is phenomenal at the technical side of our operations. That being said, teachers still come to me regularly to fix their problem. It is important for me to acknowledge when I am capable of supporting them and when I need to refer them to the experts. When possible, I do try my best to problem solve with teachers as it can be frustrating when things aren’t working and it is also part of my emphasis on building relationships whenever possible.


Devolder, A., Vanderlinde, R., van Braak, J. & Tondeur, J. (2010). Identifying multiple roles of ICT coordinators, Computers & Education, Vol.55(4), pp.1651-1655.

Sunday 8 May 2016

Professional Development Part 2

The model I've come to focus on is one that many businesses use as there will always be resistance.  Geoffrey Moore (2001) outlines this idea of ‘Crossing the Chasm’. I focus my time on 3 groups: 1. the technology enthusiasts when I want to trial things and always have great feedback and engagement 2. the visionaries when we want to look at big ideas we want to implement 3.pragmatists for developing skills. The first 2 groups don't need much convincing to attend professional development and often seek it out on their own. Teach the willing, and others will follow when they see growth and results. The conservatives are more willing to learn things once they have seen the pragmatists be successful. Staggered PD with repeated sessions later in the year can be helpful for meeting their needs and skeptics may never take the jump or resist until they have to. It is also a reality that unfortunately I will never be able to meet everyones needs to I work to impact the most people in the most effective and efficient model. In addition, I find that people from across this spectrum will come to me one-on-one for just in time PD and these short sessions (as little as 5 minutes) can be more powerful than sessions for some people.

Friday 6 May 2016

Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators

Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators
Mid-Term Impact Trend: Driving Ed Tech adoption in K-12 education for three to five years
Key Points:
  • The action of creating content over consuming content a growing trend
  • New mobile technology supporting content creation
  • Social media apps on the rise → quick informal sharing of stories
  • Game development and programming key to creation trend
  • Digital tools support creativity and production skills
  • Apps streamlining the process of creating, editing, and publishing for tutorial making
  • Creating can make a complex concept easier to explain
  • Video tutorials allow teachers to share content → teachers need the confidence to create them
  • With increased content creation, issues around intellectual property more prevalent
  • Need to educate schools, students and teachers in copyright and fair use
  • Acceptable use policies need to protect student creations
Further Suggested Reading:
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Retrieved from:


Plagiarism and copyright are very common amongst both students and teachers. It is easy to take a picture from online and include it in your presentation without crediting the owner. But it doesn’t make it right. Many teachers struggle to include a teaching component of plagiarism and copyright in their lessons.  As teachers, we need to not only be educating our students but educating ourselves on how to credit various forms of media and information to avoid plagiarism and ensure fair use of work.
Plagiarism is defined as taking someone else’s work and claiming it as your own; whereas copyright allows the owner to prevent others from using their material without permission (All Right to Copy, n.d). These ideas are important to understand and be aware of because the owner of the work should be able to control if they give permission for others to use their ideas or work, especially if there are monetary amounts involved in the copyright licenses. A piece of media is copyrighted for 70 years either from the date it was released or the date the owner dies (depending on the medium) (All Right to Copy, n.d). Beyond this time, the work becomes public and anyone can use it without prior permission.
Often there are various stipulations with licenses for copyright. Creative Commons clearly outlines the various licenses using symbols or by including text to explain the type of license. Licenses may ask the user to give attribution, allow the content to be remixed, not use for commercial use or not allow for any variations (Creative Commons, 2014).
There are so many skills that students need to learn other than just ‘do not plagiarize’ and ‘cite your source’. Students need to understand how to find good sources, how to take notes, how to summarize, how to inject their opinion and perspective into their writing and support it with facts. These skills need to be scaffolded throughout the years of schooling so that students can feel confident using information from various sources to create their own content.
Whether you are using videos, text, images or music, indicating when it's’  other’s work ensures that the owner is properly credited and resources are used fairly.
Some resources to support teachers and students about copyright and plagiarism include:

Copyright Advisory Group. (n.d). All Right to Copy? Retrieved from:
Creative Commons. (2014). About the licenses. Retrieved from:

BYOD - Bring Your Own Devices - Positional Paper

As technology becomes more readily available to the masses, students have more access to devices at home in addition to the classroom, leading to bring your own device (BYOD) models becoming a more viable option for schools to introduce. Schools should implement a BYOD programme to support student learning in a 21st-century classroom environment and specify the device the school has chosen for consistent learning experiences. When adopting a BYOD model, schools must look at a whole-school approach to learning and ensure policies, educational opportunities and effective infrastructure are in place for the success of the programme.

Adopting a BYOD model provides a school with the opportunity to cultivate a community of responsible learners in a safe educational environment. With the ability to connect online anywhere, anytime, it is normal for some hesitation about online safety (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 15). However, a BYOD programme implemented in conjunction with a digital citizenship programme educates students on how to engage with their devices in a responsible and resilient manner. Schools should tailor their digital citizenship programme to their school’s needs while accessing resources such as Common Sense Media and MediaSmarts. Through this, students gain knowledge about cyberbullying, digital footprints, safety, security, information literacy and referencing (Common Sense Media, 2015).  A school-wide acceptable use policy for devices should be created for all students to abide by to support the cultivation of a positive online community (Smith, Worrel-Burrus, Davis, Newman & William, 2014, p. 18).

A BYOD programme allows students to gain a sense of responsibility for their devices (Burns-Sardone, N., 2014, p. 192). This responsibility raises the expectations students have of themselves and how they conduct themselves online. Schools may wish to implement a BYOD programme beginning in middle school where students are at an age to handle caring for, transporting and maintaining an expensive device, and are more knowledgeable about appropriate online choices. Prior to this, a school should support technology integration through school-owned devices at the primary level.

In addition to a proactive approach with students, schools must critically analyse their infrastructure to ensure it supports their BYOD programme. A benefit to BYOD is that the onus of the cost of the device is on the student and not the school, allowing school funding to be allocated for internet, resources and infrastructure for the programme. With any BYOD programme, the school needs to place high importance on training teachers in the device, online safety, learning platforms and effective technology integration to support students appropriate use, which ensures quality teaching practice throughout the school (Digital Education Advisory Group, 2013, p. 7). In addition, allocated IT support personnel can enhance the adoption and implementation of BYOD. These staff members have an important role in regards to protecting student data, connectivity, upgrades, firewalls and maintenance. A BYOD programme is effective when continually reviewed and necessary modifications are made to keep current with changing technology.

A BYOD model changes the class environment through ease of mobility, access to online resources, and assessment tools (Digital Education Advisory Group, p.5). Through the many available online resources, student learning can be differentiation to best meet the needs of the students (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 26). No longer is there a need for one-size fits all learning where students can be extended or supported with a few clicks and inquiries can flourish.  Because of this, learning becomes more personalized and student-centred, increasing student engagement and performance (Digital Education Advisory Group, p.7). When students each have their own device, they become active participants in learning in school and at home (Ackerman & Krupp, 2012, p. 35).

Through the use of technology, students develop 21st-century skills that are transdisciplinary. BYOD provides students access to the tools and resources to collaborate online through programmes such as Google Apps for Education and Skype. BYOD helps students to easily inquire into their queries, allowing the teacher to transition to the role of a facilitator (Pangos, n.d). Students are able to use technology to create content using multimedia and higher-order thinking while using various resources to stay organised and communicate ideas in a multitude of ways.

There will always be challenges such as student safety online, the cost for students, ensuring the infrastructure can handle the adopted programme, professional development with BYOD programmes. However, all of these can be overcome with appropriate planning, guidelines and policies, and frequent review to ensure the all-encompassing programme continues to best support the needs of students.

Technology in education is evitably growing with BYOD leading the way (Thomson, 2012 as cited in Chen, Li, Hoang, Lou, 2013, p. 2). By allowing a BYOD programme to support an inquiry-based, constructivist approach to learning, students become responsible digital citizens and schools look closely at the effectiveness of their infrastructure. Students learn valuable 21st-century skills, create, curate content and collaborate globally. Together with a whole-school approach for next-generation learning, a BYOD programme provides students with an educational experience that is highly engaging, challenging and preparing them for their future.

Ackerman, A. S., & Krupp, M. L. (2012). Five components to consider for BYOT/BYOD. International Association for Development of the Information Society, 35-41.
Burns-Sardone, N. (2014). Making the case for BYOD instruction in teacher education. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 11, 191-201.
Chen, H., Li, J., Hoang, T., & Lou, X. (2013). [Working paper]. Security challenges of BYOD: a security education, training and awareness perspective,1-8.
Common Sense Media. (n.d.). Digital citizenship scope & sequence. Retrieved from
Digital Education Advisory Group. (2013). Beyond the classroom: a new digital education for young Australians in the 21st century. Retrieved from
Pangos, T. (n.d).  The Future of Education: BYOD in the Classroom. Retrieved from
Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2014). Integrating educational technology into teaching [Sixth Edition].
Smith, M. M., Worrell-Burrus, P., Davis, M. K., Newman, M. J., & William, K. (2014). Are we ready for BYOD?. Journal of Effective Schools Project, 21,16-23.